ikona mapki   

ul. Okrężna 51 | Grodzisk Mazowiecki 05-825,

The Warsaw Pact was created as a balance of power[14] or a counterweight[15] to NATO. There was no direct military confrontation between them; Instead, the conflict was fought on an ideological basis and in proxy wars. NATO and the Warsaw Pact led to the expansion of the armed forces and their integration into the respective blocs. [15] Their greatest military involvement was the warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968 (with the participation of all Covenant states except Albania and Romania),[14] which partly led Albania to withdraw from the Pact less than a month later. The Pact began to unravel in its entirety with the spread of the 1989 revolutions in the Eastern bloc, starting with the Solidarność movement in Poland[16] and its electoral success in June 1989. Before the creation of the Warsaw Pact, Czechoslovak leaders, fearing an improved Germany, tried to conclude a security pact with East Germany and Poland. [11] These states protested fiercely against the remilitarization of West Germany. [20] The Warsaw Pact was introduced into NATO following the rearmament of West Germany. Soviet leaders, like many European countries on both sides of the Iron Curtain, feared that Germany would once again become a military power and a direct threat.

The consequences of German militarism remained a fresh memory for the Soviets and Eastern Europeans. [5] [6] [21] [22] [23] Since the Soviet Union already had bilateral treaties with all its eastern satellites, the pact has long been considered „superfluous”[24] and, because of the hasty way it was designed, NATO officials called it a „cardboard castle.” [25] The USSR, fearing the restoration of German militarism in West Germany, had offered to join NATO in 1954, but this was rejected by the United States and Britain. [26] [27] [28] Even without the Warsaw Pact, the Soviet Union`s military ties with the region faded. Other former states of the Pact have increasingly purchased more modern and powerful weapons from Western countries, including the United States. Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia began sending their troops to the United States, Britain, France and Germany for training. The region`s still enforced and rarely welcome military alliance with the USSR was eventually broken. The Warsaw Pact embodied what was called the Eastern Bloc, while NATO and its member countries represented the Western Bloc. The Warsaw Pact remained intact until 1991. Albania was expelled in 1962 because the country believed that Russian leader Nikita Khrushchev deviated too much from strict Marxist orthodoxy and turned to communist China for aid and trade. In 1990, East Germany left the Pact and reunited with West Germany; the reunified Germany then became a member of NATO. The rise of non-communist governments in other Eastern bloc countries such as Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1990 and 1991 marked the effective end of Warsaw Pact power.

In March 1991, the military alliance component of the Pact was dissolved, and in July 1991 the last meeting of the political advisory body was held. The Warsaw Pact, officially known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was established on May 14, 1955, immediately after West Germany joined the Alliance. It complements the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, the regional economic organization founded by the Soviet Union in January 1949 for the communist states of Central and Eastern Europe. Memories of the Nazi occupation were still strong, and Germany`s rearmament was also feared by the France. [6] [45] On August 30, 1954, the French parliament rejected the EDC, thus ensuring its failure[46] and thus blocking an important objective of American policy towards Europe: the military connection of West Germany with the West. [47] The US State Department began to develop alternatives: West Germany would be invited to join NATO or, in the case of French obstructionism, strategies to circumvent a French veto would be implemented to achieve German rearmament outside NATO. [48] In 1989, civil and political discontent among the population overthrew the communist governments of the Warsaw Contracting States. An independent national policy made possible by the policies of perestroika and glasnost that caused the institutional collapse of the communist government in the USSR in 1991. [65] From 1989 to 1991, communist governments were overthrown in Albania, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Romania, Bulgaria, and the Soviet Union. Instead, Warsaw Pact troops were used more frequently to keep the communist regime in the Eastern bloc itself.

When Hungary attempted to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact in 1956, Soviet troops invaded the country and overthrew the government of the Hungarian People`s Republic. Soviet troops then crushed the national revolution, killing about 2,500 Hungarian citizens. In January 1949, the Soviet Union founded „Comecon”, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, an organization for the reconstruction and development of the economies of the eight communist nations of Central and Eastern Europe after World War II. When West Germany joined NATO on May 6, 1955, the Soviet Union saw NATO`s growing strength and a newly improved West Germany as a threat to communist control. A week later, on May 14, 1955, the Warsaw Pact was established as a complement to mutual military defense at the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance. The Warsaw Pact was declared completed on 25 February 1991 and Czechoslovak President Vaclav Havel officially declared it completed on 1 July 1991. Gorbachev`s policy of openness (glasnost) and restructuring (perestroika), as well as other initiatives, paved the way for popular uprisings. The Berlin Wall fell in November 1989 and the communist governments of Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, gdr, Romania and Bulgaria began to fall.

The eight Warsaw Pact countries, which viewed NATO`s Western bloc as a security threat, all pledged to defend all other member countries under attack. Member States have also agreed to respect each other`s national sovereignty and political independence by not interfering in each other`s internal affairs. .

Kategorie: